In the Middle Ages, Vitozza had a fortified castle, at least two fortresses, and places of worship including a major and two minor churches, in addition to the cave settlement.
The cave settlement of Vitozza is certainly the largest and most important of central Italy. It includes over two hundred caves excavated from the local tuff stone.
The caves used for human habitation extend along a path through the woods overlooking the valley of the river Lente. Some are quite close to each other, while others tend to be more isolated.
Depending on their type, caves can in fact be classified in four different types:
The first group is characterized by tunnels with rectangular openings which are often on different levels, connected by ladders and steps, with houses located on the upper levels and animal shelters in the lower ones.
A second group of caves presents rectangular structures destined to house the animals.
A third type of caves was for mixed use - they are characterized by an arched opening, a circular area and attached rooms. The circular part, for animal use, was equipped with a feeder, the other rooms were probably used for habitation.
The northwestern part of Vitozza includes a group of dozens of caves known as columbaria which almost certainly were created in Roman times and remained active throughout the Middle Ages for the purpose of pigeon breeding, a common practice in the territory of Sorano.